Critical lenses on ‘AI’

Here I collect a selected set of critical lenses on so-called1 ‘AI’, including the recently hyped ChatGPT. I hope these resources are useful for others as well, and help make insightful why we need to remain vigilant and resist the AI hype.

I expect to be updating this blog as time passes. If you have recommendations for entries, feel free to drop me a note on Mastodon or via email.

For us, critique is service. We critique because we care. — Abeba Birhane & Deborah Raji (2022)


Is ethical AI possible? Interview with Timnit Gebru (2023)

Don’t fall for the AI hype Interview with Timnit Gebru (2023)

Language models and linguistics Interview with Emily M. Bender (2021)

English articles, blogs, etc.

ChatGPT, Galactica, and the Progress Trap by Abeba Birhane & Deborah Raji (2022)

ChatGPT is amazing and everything that’s wrong with the world by Lucy Avraamidou (2023)

OpenAI used Kenyan workers on less than $2 per hour to make ChatGPT less toxic by Billy Perrigo (2023)

All-knowing machines are a fantasy by Emily M. Bender & Chirag Shah (2022)

Effective Altruism is pushing a dangerous brand of ‘AI Safety’ by Timnit Gebru (2022)

On NYT Magazine on AI: Resist the urge to be impressed by Emily M. Bender (2022)

The messy, secretive reality behind OpenAI’s bid to save the world by Karen Hao (2020)

Stop feeding the hype and start resisting by Iris van Rooij (2023)

OpenAI’s Whisper is another case study in Colonisation by Keoni Mahelona, Gianna Leoni, Suzanne Duncan, Miles Thompson (2023)

ChatGPT is a bullshit generator waging class war by Dan McQuilan (2023)

Against automated plagiarism by Iris van Rooij (2022)

Monetizing uninformation: a prediction by Mark Dingemanse (2022)

Deep learning, image generation, and the rise of bias automation machines by Mark Dingemanse (2022)

In defense of “banning” ChatGPT by Autumm Caines (2023)

Prior to (or instead of) using ChatGPT with your students by Autumm Caines (2023)

An offering by Lawrie Phipps & Donna Lanclos (2023)

AIngry by Donna Lanclos & Lawrie Phipps (2022)

Don’t ask if artificial intelligence is good or fair, ask how it shifts power by Pratyusha Kalluri (2020)

How do we resist supporting neoliberal, multi-millionaire artificial intelligence companies that exploit workers in a world that is starving for empathy and emotional intelligence? — Lucy Avraamidou (2023)

Dutch articles, blogs, etc.

Bezweer ChatGPT door zijn algoritmen te ontregelen by Gys-Walt van Egdom (2023)

ChatGPT is niks meer dan een krachtige bullshit generator by Jorn Bunk (2023) (here in English)

ChatGPT: de magie van een digitale papegaai by Ben Caudron (2023)

Bedenkingen bij ChatGPT: zakken we weg in een moeras van desinformatie? by Laurens Verhagen (2023)

Wat is er open aan de slimme chatbot-maker OpenAI? by Colin van Heezik (2023)


Weapons of math destruction by Cathy O’Neil (2017)

Algorithms of oppression by Safiya Umoja Noble (2018)

Automating inequality by Virginia Eubanks (2019)

Race after technology by Ruha Benjamin (2019)

Resisting AI by Dan McQuillan (2022)

[A]ny AI-like system will act as a condenser for existing forms of structural and cultural violence. — Dan McQuillan (2022)

Scientific articles

Towards decolonising computational sciences by Birhane & Guest (2021)

Pygmalion displacement: When humanising AI dehumanises women by Erscoi, Kleinherenbrink & Guest (2023).

On the dangers of stochastic parrots: can Language Models be too big? 🦜 by Bender, Gebru, McMillan-Major, & Shmitchell (2021)

Climbing towards NLU: On meaning, form, and understanding in the age of data by Bender & Koller (2020)

Robot rights? Let’s talk about human welfare instead by Birhane & van Dijk (2020)

The impossibility of automating ambiguity by Birhane (2021)

Physiognomic Artificial Intelligence by Luke Stark & Jevan Hutson (2022)


1 I distinguish between so-called ‘AI’ (i.e., technological systems created using statistical methods that are misrepresented to the public as being artificially intelligent) on the one hand, and the scientific study of Artificial Intelligence (AI) on the other.